Functional design of a wind turbine
The complete structure of a wind turbine including its base and tower is illustrated schematically.
The tower is the largest and heaviest component of a wind turbine. It is usually between 1 and 1.8 times longer than the rotor diameter and can weigh several hundred tonnes. The tower structure itself not only supports the mass of the nacelle and rotor blades, but must also absorb the enormous static loads caused by the varying wind forces. Tubular constructions assembled from stackable concrete or steel segments are generally used. The tower height or hub height is between approximately 120 m and 130 m for an output of approximately 3 MW to 6 MW and with a rotor diameter of approximately 110 m to 130 m.
The rotor is the component that converts the energy contained in the wind to mechanical rotary motion using the rotor blades.
The nacelle with the machinery train (drive train) contains the entire generating unit. (The functions are described in detail in the “Wind turbine – inside view” medium!)
Information and ideas:
Physics class could be used to explain why wind currents passing through the rotor blades cause them to move (flow principle of Venturi and Bernoulli).