The highly different electronegativities in the hydrogen-oxygen bonds lead to an electron shift and thereby a dipole structure. An additional factor is the geometry of the water molecule, which is determined by minimization of the repulsion of the free electron pairs. If a water dipole touches a water dipole, these binding forces are so great that the hydrogen atom can no longer be associated with an individual molecule. The hydrogen atoms are between the molecules, i.e. they form bridges.
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Learning resource type:
Grade 7 to 9; Grade 10 to 13
Chemical compound; Hydrogen; Molecule; State of aggregation; Compound (chemistry); Hydrogen; Molecular structure (chemistry); State of aggregation
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