If surplus energy exists in the power supply grid, water is pumped from a lower reservoir to a higher reservoir in a power plant with an electric pump. At times of peak demand, the water flows back from the high reservoir to the low reservoir via the turbines of the low-lying power plant. Thus, electrical energy is ultimately stored up as mechanical energy. Due to the small amounts of water and the high pressures, Pelton turbines are often used. With high water flow, higher peak power output is achieved with Francis turbines, but then the water reservoir is used up faster.
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